Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Abuse of animals Essay

Most of us, grew up taking family trips to the circus, zoo, marine park or rodeo. Seeing animals held captive for human amusement was part of life. We never questioned it. While it is assumed that all humans, unless they have committed crimes against society, deserve freedom, we are not used to making that assumption for members of other species. We should ask ourselves why not. What have the animals in a zoo or marine park done to deserve their jail sentences, or the elephants in a circus done to deserve lives spent mostly in chains? For thousands of years, animals have been used to entertain humans in sporting events, rodeos, hunting and in circuses. They have been hurt and many have even died. Using animals in sports raises concerns for animals rights.1 Therefore, the use of animals for entertainment or sport should be banned. Now days there are many things other than animals to entertain humans such as computers, phones, games and so on. So why do we need animals? When animals are used in circus’ they have to travel in some sort of truck where they will be kept in a cage. The circus might be poor or unpopular. So the poorer the less the animals will be fed and the less they’re paid attention to. For some entertainment animals are killed, this is wrong. We need more wild life not less. Animals should not be treated like this it is wrong and really not at all necessary! To take part in circuses, animals have to be taken away from their families and their natural habitats, put inside dark trucks and put inside cages. We then take them to the circus or the rodeo to fight and many often do not care if the animal dies, It is just for their satisfaction. We need to stop this and save our wildlife, not destroy it. Why should animals be caged in the first place? They are wild and uncivilized creatures. They have very narrow aims; eat, sleep, breed , die. The most dominant reason for caging animals or birds is for personal entertainment, whether it is a lion in a circus forced to jump through loops or if it is a macaw kept in a cage as a pet or â€Å"companion†. They are kept in inadequate spaces, wild animals have ranges that stretch for miles on end. They need space to run and act out there instincts. With wild animals just like pets when they are restricted in space, exercise and stimulation they get frustrated. This leads to physiological problems, such as pacing in cages and gnawing at bars. This can also lead to violent attacks on the trainer and/or the audience. Most people, seeing tigers jumps through hoops of fire, or elephants stand on their heads, never think about what is behind those unnatural acts. The circus would like us to believe that the animals are trained with positive reinforcement. If that were true then we would see trainers in the ring with bags of treats. Instead they carry whips and bullhooks? Even Ric O’Barry, who once made his living capturing and training the dolphins who played Flipper, now works against dolphin captivity. He is now the marine mammal specialist for the leading French animal protection group, â€Å"One Voice.† That group has shared a horrifying account of the annual dolphin slaughter in Japan, as thousands of dolphins are rounded into a bay and hacked up with machetes. Representatives of marine theme parks from around the world watch the carnage and pay the killers for the best looking dolphins for the tourist industry.2 Animals are harmed when used as objects of entertainment, no matter how innocent that entertainment is. The circus is another arena in which human beings abuse other animals. Animals are trained to perform tricks using whips, electronic goads, sticks, food-deprivation etc. Wild animals such as lions, tigers, and elephants are kept in shamefully inadequate conditions in tiny spaces. The necessity of regular transportation means that the circus can never provide an appropriate home for wild animals. These animals are forced to travel thousands of miles in cramped and squalid conditions and frequently end up physically and mentally ill. And what for? Purely for the entertainment of we arrogant exploitative humans. What sort of lesson does it teach our children about non-human animals to take them to the circus and see these great creatures demeaned and controlled by force to perform silly tricks? The history of animal cruelty has been traced back as far as the 12th Century, for example fighting dogs for sports. Dogs are use in pit fights against larger animals like wild boar and bulls. Cockfighting in some countries may still be legal and part of the cultural norm.3In most counties the act of two or more animals fighting each other, such as cockfighting, is seen as cruel and is therefore illegal such as cow fighting and camel fighting. There are also some legal forms of sport where humans fight animals, such as bullfighting which has a long history in Spanish and Portuguese tradition.4 There are several other blood sports in history that were intended as entertainment. The use of animals in sport demeans humans as Peter Singer arguments that other animals may not have the same level of sapience as humans, but they feel fear, stress, exhaustion and pain just as we do. It is immoral to derive pleasure either from the suffering or forced performance of another living being, especially when that being is under one’s power and control. It would of course be absurd to suggest that animals should have equality with humans on the level of having the right to vote or of criminal responsibility, but they should have equality with us on terms of equal consideration of interests, that is, pain and suffering should be equally significant whether it is a human or an animal that feels it.5nHorses and dogs are among the principle victims of exploitation in human sporting activities. The main purpose of horse- and dog-racing is for human beings to indulge their penchant for gambling. The welfare of the animals involved is at best a secondary concern. The Riverside (Washington)Suicide Race67, where horse often die from the nearly 400 foot steep grade of the suicide hill, the riders trying to make it down and through a river. As for the conditions the animals are kept in, these may be good for the top dogs and horses, but in the main conditions are poor, and once the animals cease to win races they are likely to be neglected, abandoned, or slaughtered. Horses are also forced to take part in the dangerous contact sport of polo in which collisions and a hard, fast-moving puck pose serious danger to the animals who, unlike their riders, have no choice in whether they take part. Pet owners can argue that they love the pets they keep as a part of their family, they provide them with food and shelter, something far better than that which they could have ever seen in the wild. Medical attention is provided and ample enjoyment to accompany that â€Å"perfect† life, The pet technically lives like a king. research also accounts to animals being caged along with education of the youth through zoos, what education could a zoo provide if the animal is far from its natural habitat?, the only knowledge a child could squeeze out of a zoo is that monkeys like to throw things and they also like shout an awful lot at observers. Why should the animals be allowed to live in the wild? without a cage and unsupervised? Simply put, animals are also living creatures with souls, they also feel pain therefore they also deserve to have rights of their own. They may lack wisdom or intellectual resources which allow them to discover at a rate comparable to humans however it is logical to say that animals only attack when they are threatened. They don’t search for human flesh. P.T. Barnum created a form of staged Wild West show as early as 1843s, when he presented a mock â€Å"Grand Buffalo Hunt† in Hoboken, New Jersey. The show was not a great success. The 15 buffalo calves used in the show broke through the barriers and escaped from thes with what they believe is â€Å"better† for them? would a human live as a pet or prefer to be free ? A sane answer would be to protest and a human would probably kill the entire race of ali arena, causing panic among the crowd because they feels threatened.8 Consider the following anomaly for the sake of argument, If there was to be an alien invasion and those aliens were more intelligent and sophisticated than humans, do they have the right to capture humans and keep them as pets in their home planet? by feeding humanens if given the opportunity. Fighting bulls have a better quality of life than meat-producing bulls. If animal welfare is the primary concern then consistency requires that if one accepts the raising and slaughter of animals for meat then one should also accept the raising and slaughter of animals for entertainment. Some thinks that thorough bred animal which lives to a minimum age of four, roaming wild, feasting on Spain’s finest pasture, never even seeing a man on foot, is far superior to that of the many thousands of British bulls whose far shorter lives are spent entirely in factory conditions and killed in grim abattoirs so that we can eat beefburgers.† 9 To condemn bull fighting is to fail to be sensitive to cultural differences and to the true nature of the sport such as the traditional Spanish culture that should therefore be respected in the same way that any other minority activity such as the slaughtering of animals according to certain Jewish or Muslim ritual laws would be. Secondly, the bull fight is a symbolic enactment of the battle between man and beast; the matador is a highly trained and highly skilled artist and fighter and takes his life in his hands when he enters the ring – it is a match between man and animal. Finally, since the bull would be killed anyway, it is of little consequence how it is kill. But it is consistent to oppose both uses of the animal. Moreover, Bull fighting is probably the most barbaric exploitation of animals that is still legally practised (in Spain, Portugal, parts of France, Mexico, and, illegally, in the United States). The idea that there is a fair match between the bull and the matador is laughable. The bull dies at the end of every single bullfight (it is either killed by the matador or slaughtered afterwards if it survives); for a matador to be seriously injured is rare and it is very rare indeed for a matador to die as the result of a bull fight. During bull fights the animals are taunted and goaded, and have sharp spears stuck into their bodies until eventually they collapse from their injuries and exhaustion. Matadors are not heroes or artists, they are cruel cowards. If humans are so desperate for companions, We have other humans for that purpose. Hence i conclude that animals are not to be kept caged, if the expansion of human settlement is a necessity then animal sanctuaries are also a necessity. The balance of nature is something which should not be offset by simple ignorant behavior. In conclusion, the use of animals for entertainment or sport should be banned as there are other alternatives for entertainment and sport.

Ngc march

Explain the purpose of the ‘statement of intent' section of a health and safety policy. (3) the purpose of the ‘statement of intent' section of the policy should set health and safety goals and objectives for the organization; demonstrate management's commitment to health and safety; explain the allocation of resources to attain the stated goals and objectives and give an indication of the cultural health and safety framework for the organization. B) Outline the circumstances that would require a health and safety policy to be reviewed. 5) circumstances such as significant changes in the structure of the organization; after the introduction of new or changed processes or work methods; following changes in key personnel or a change of premises; following changes in legislation; where audits, risk assessments, monitoring exercises or investigations into accidents and cases of ill-health show that the policy is no longer effective or relevant; following enforcement action by or the receipt of advice from the enforcement authority; as a result of consultation with the workforce; and after a sufficient period of time has elapsed since the previous review to suggest that another is due. Question 4 (a) Identify TWO types of health and safety inspection. (2) types of health and safety inspection such as pre-use checks for example of portable appliances or ladders; general periodic workplace inspections; statutory inspections and those associated with planned preventative maintenance; safety tours and safety sampling and inspections carried out by members of the enforcement authority. B) Outline the skills and knowledge that are required of an employee who conducts health and safety inspections. 6) qualities expected of an employee who carries out health and safety inspections, candidates were expected to refer firstly to the knowledge he/she should possess such as a general knowledge of health and safety together with the legal requirements and any publishe d guidance; knowledge of the workplace and the work activities carried out with the procedures that have been introduced such as safe systems of work and the use of permits to work; and knowledge as to whom he/she should report the results of the inspections. Relevant skills would include the ability to identify hazards and risks and to detect deficiencies in the control measures provided; observational skills together with the ability to record and report observations; interpersonal skills including the ability to interview and question fellow employees and finally and importantly the ability to recognize his/her own limitations.Question 5 Outline ways to help ensure the effectiveness of a health and safety committee. (8) One of the prime requirements in setting up an effective safety committee is to ensure that it has the full backing of senior management, is provided with terms of reference and objectives and that its membership constitutes an even balance between management and employee representatives under the chairmanship of a fair, strong but diplomatic individual with one member of sufficient seniority to authorize any agreed action. It would be essential that time and resources are set aside for committee meetings which should be at a convenient time and notified in advance to all members with a copy of the agenda.Items for discussion should be topical and relevant to the organization and the safety adviser should always be present to provide professional health and safety advice. Formal minutes should be prepared after each meeting including actions that have been agreed and a copy of these should be displayed where it is accessible to all employees, such as on the employee notice board, so that they might be aware of the decisions that have been taken. Question 6 (a) Give the meaning of the term ‘risk. (2) the probability or likelihood that an unwanted event will occur and the possible severity in terms of injury or damage, would it occur. (b ) Give reasons why hazards may not be obvious to an employee exposed to them. 6) reasons such as over-familiarity following frequent contact with the hazard without recognizing any potential harm; lack of experience particularly in the case of young persons; sensory impairment; lack of attention arising from the routine or repetitive nature of the task being undertaken; warning alarms being masked by noise or the wearing of personal protective equipment; and inadequate provision of training, information and instruction. Other reasons which might have been given included the invisible nature of the hazard, such as that arising from exposure to biological agents, gases and radiation and those hazards where there is no obvious short term effect with little indication of what harm might be caused in the longer term. Question 7 (a) Outline the functions of a permit-to-work form. (2) functions of a permit to work system are to control high risk activities by ensuring set procedures are fo llowed; to formally record control measures and to give signed authority for the activity to be carried out. B) Outline the elements that should be included in a typical permit-to- work form. 6) Elements which should be included in the permit include firstly a description and assessment of the task to be performed including the plant involved, its location and the foreseeable hazards associated with the task. This will determine the need for, and nature of the necessary controls such as, the isolation of sources of energy and other services, the provision and use of personal protective equipment, emergency arrangements and facilities, communication arrangements and the duration of the permit. An essential element of a permit to work system is the operation of the remit itself.By means of signatures, the permit should be issued by an authorized person, and accepted by the competent person responsible for the work. On completion of the work, the competent person would need to indicate on the permit that the area had been made safe in order for the permit to be cancelled by the authorized person, after which isolations could be removed. Question 8 An organization can monitor its health and safety performance using a variety of means. (a) Identify FOUR active monitoring methods. (4) inspections, surveys, tours, audits, environmental monitoring, health surveillance, behavioral observation and benchmarking against the performance of other like organizations. (b) Identify FOUR reactive monitoring methods. 4) reactive monitoring methods which might be used include accident and ill health reports and statistics, incidents of reported near misses and dangerous occurrences, property damage, actions taken by enforcement authorities, the number of civil actions and insurance claims and the costs involved in all of these. Question 9 Explain reasons why the following employees may be at greater risk in the oracle: (a) young persons; (4) the individual's stage of physical dev elopment and maturity; lack of knowledge, experience, training and practical skills; lack of perception or awareness of risk; poorly developed communication skills; over enthusiasm and the tendency of young persons to take risks and to respond more readily to peer group pressure.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Sigmund Freud Paper

Many believe Freud to be the father of modern psychiatry and psychology and the only psychiatrist of any worth. He is certainly the most well known figure, perhaps because sex played such a prominent role in his system. There are other psychologists, however, whose theories demand respectful consideration. Erik Erickson, born Eric Homburger, whose theories while not as titillating as Freud’s, are just as sound. This paper will compare the two great men and their systems. In addition, this paper will argue that Freud offers the more useful foundation for understanding the Jenny Masterson’s confused psyche. Sigmund Freud showed signs of independence and brilliance well before entering the University of Vienna in 1873. He had a prodigious memory and loved reading to the point of running himself into debt at various bookstores. Among his favorite authors were Goethe, Shakespeare, Kant, Hegel and Nietzsche. To avoid disruption of his studies, he often ate in his room. After medical school, Freud began a private practice, specializing in nervous disorders. He was soon faced with patients whose disorders made no neurological sense. For example, a patient might have lost feeling in his foot with no evidence to any sensory nerve damage. Freud wondered if the problem could be psychological rather than physiological. Dr. Freud evolved as he treated patients and analyzed himself. He recorded his assessment and expounded his theories in 24 volumes published between 1888 and 1939. Although his first book, The Interpretation of Dreams, sold only 600 copies in its first eight years of publication, his ideas gradually began to attract faithful followers and students – along with a great number of critics. While exploring the possible psychological roots of nervous disorders, Freud spent several months in Paris, studying with Jean Charcot, a French neurologist from whom he learned hypnosis. On return to Vienna, Freud began to hypnotize patients and encouraging them while under hypnosis to speak openly about themselves and the onset of their symptoms. Often the patients responded freely, and upon reviewing their past, became quite upset and agitated. By this process, some saw their symptoms lessened or banished entirely. It was in this way that Freud discovered what he termed the â€Å"unconscious. Piecing together his patients’ accounts of their lives, he decided that the loss of feeling in one’s hand might be caused by, say, the fear of touching one’s genitals; blindness or deafness might be caused by the fear of hearing or seeing something that might arouse grief or distress. Over time, Freud saw hundreds of patients. He soon recognized that hypnosis was not as helpful as he had first hoped. He thus pioneered a new technique termed â€Å"free association. † Patients were told to relax and say whatever came to mind, no matter how mortifying or irrelevant. Freud believed that free association produced a chain of thought that was linked to the unconscious, and often painful, memories of childhood. Freud called this process psychoanalysis. Underlying Freud’s psychoanalytic perception of personality was his belief that the mind was akin to an iceberg – most of it was hidden from view. The conscious awareness is the part of the iceberg that is above the surface but below the surface is a much larger unconscious region that contains feelings, wishes and memories of which persons are largely unaware. Some thoughts are stored temporarily in a preconscious area, from where they can be retrieved at will. However, Freud was more interested in the mass of thought and feeling that are repressed – forcibly blocked from conscious thought because it would be too painful to acknowledge. Freud believed that these repressed materials unconsciously exert a powerful influence on behavior and choices. Freud believed that dreams and slips of tongue and pen were windows to his patient’s unconscious. Intrusive thoughts or seemingly trivial errors while reading, writing and speaking suggested to Freud that what is said and done reflects the working of the unconscious. Jokes especially were an outlet for expressing repressed sexual and aggressive tendencies. For Freud, nothing was accidental. Freud believed that human personality, expressed emotions, strivings, and beliefs arise from a conflict between the aggressive, pleasure-seeking, biological impulses and the social restraints against their expression. This conflict between expression and repression, in ways that bring the achievement of satisfaction without punishment or guilt, drives the development of personality. Freud divided the elements of that conflict into three interacting systems: the id, ego and superego. Freud did not propose a new, na? ve anatomy, but saw these terms as â€Å"useful aids to understanding† the mind’s dynamics. The id is a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that continually toils to satisfy basic drives to survive, reproduce and aggress. The id operates on the pleasure principle – if unconstrained, it seeks instantaneous gratification. It is exemplified by a new born child who cries out for satisfaction the moment it feels hungry, tired, uncomfortable – oblivious to conditions, wishes, or expectations of his environment. As the child learns to cope with the real world, his ego develops. The ego operates on the reality principle, which seeks to superintend the id’s impulses in realistic ways to accomplish pleasure in practical ways, avoiding pain in the process. The ego contains partly conscious perceptions, thoughts, judgements, and memories. It is the personality executive. The ego arbitrates between impulsive demands of the id, the restraining demands of the superego and the real-life demands of the external world. Around age 4 or 5, a child’s ego recognizes the demands of the newly emerging superego. The superego is the voice of conscience that forces the ego to consider not only the real but also the ideal. Its focus is on how one should behave. The superego develops as the child internalizes the morals and values of parents and culture, thereby providing both a sense of right, wrong and a set of ideals. It strives for perfection and judges our actions, producing positive feelings of pride or negative feelings of guilt. Someone with an exceptionally strong superego may be continually upright and socially correct yet ironically harbor guilt-, another with a weak superego may be wantonly self-indulgent and remorseless. Because the superego’s demands often oppose the id’s, the ego struggles to reconcile the two. The chaste student who is sexually attracted to someone and joins a volunteer organization to work alongside the desired person, satisfies both id and superego. Analysis of his patients’ histories convinced Freud that personality forms during a person’s first few years. Again and again his patients’ symptoms seemed rooted in unresolved conflicts from early childhood. He concluded that children pass through a series of psychosexual stages during which the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct pleasure-sensitive areas of the body he called â€Å"erogenous zones. † During the â€Å"oral stage,† usually the first 18 months, an infant’s sensual pleasure focuses on sucking, biting, and chewing. During the â€Å"anal stage,† from about 18 months to 3 years, the sphincter muscles become sensitive and controllable, and bowel and bladder retention and elimination become a source of gratification. During the phallic stage, from roughly ages 3 to 6 years, the pleasure zones shift to the genitals. Freud believed that during this stage boys seek genital stimulation and develop unconscious sexual desires for their mothers along with jealousy and hatred for their father, whom they consider a rival. Boys feel unrecognized guilt for their rivalry and a fear that their father will punish them, such as by castration. This collection of feelings he named the â€Å"Oedipus Complex’ after the Greek legend of Oedipus, who unknowingly killed his father and married his mother. Originally Freud hypothesized that females experienced a parallel â€Å"Electra complex. † However, in time Freud changed his mind, saying, (1931, p. 229): â€Å"It is only in the male child that we find the fateful combination of love for the one parent and simultaneous hatred for the other as a rival. † Children eventually cope with these threatening feelings by repressing them then identifying with and trying to become like the rival parent. Through this identification process children’s superegos gain strength as they incorporate many of their parents’ values. Freud believed that identification with the same-sex parent provides our gender identity – the sense of being male or female. With their sexual feelings repressed and redirected, children enter a latency stage. Freud maintained that during this latency period, extending from around age 6 to puberty, sexuality is dormant and children play mostly with peers of the same sex. At puberty, latency gives way to the final stage — the genital stage — as youths begin to experience sexual feelings towards others. In Freud’s view, maladaptive behavior in the adult results from conflicts unresolved during earlier psychosexual stages. At any point in the oral, anal, or phallic stages, strong conflict can lock, or fixate, the person’s pleasure-seeking energies in that stage. Thus people who were either orally overindulged or deprived, perhaps by abrupt, early weaning, might fixate at the oral stage. Orally fixated adults are said to exhibit either passive dependence (like that of a nursing infant) or an exaggerated denial of this dependence, perhaps by acting tough and macho. They might continue to smoke or eat excessively to satisfy their needs for oral gratification. Those who never quite resolve their anal conflict, a desire to eliminate at will that combats the demands of toilet training, may be both messy and disorganized (†anal expulsive†) or highly controlled and compulsively neat (†anal-retentive†). To live in social groups, impulses cannot be freely acted on They must be controlled in logical, socially acceptable ways. When the ego fears losing control of the inner struggle between the demands of the id and the superego, the result is anxiety. Anxiety, said Freud, is the price paid for civilization. Unlike specific fears, the dark cloud of anxiety is unfocused. Anxiety is therefore, difficult to cope with, as when we feel unsettled but have no basis for feeling that way. Freud proposed that the ego protects itself against anxiety with ego defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms reduce or redirect anxiety in various ways, but always by distorting reality. Although Freud was known to change his mind, he was deeply committed to his ideas and principles, even in the face of harsh criticism. Although controversial, his ideas attracted followers who formed a dedicated inner circle. From time to time, sparks would fly and a member would leave or be outcast. Even the ideas of the outcasts, however, reflected Freud’s influence. Erik Erikson was one of these outcasts. He agreed with Freud that development proceeds through a series of critical stages. But he believed the stages were psychosocial, not psychosexual. Erikson also argued that life’s developmental stages encompass the whole life span According to Erikson, a crisis is equivalent to a turning point in life, where there is the opportunity to progress or regress. At these turning points, a person can either resolve conflicts or fail to adequately resolve the developmental task. Delving further into these differences, Erikson contended that each stage of life has its own psychosocial task. Young children wrestle with issues of trust, then autonomy, then initiative. School-age children develop competence, the sense that they are able and productive human beings. In adolescence, the task is to synthesize past, present, and future possibilities into a clearer sense of self. Adolescents wonder: â€Å"Who am I as an individual? What do I want to do with my life? What values should I live by? What do I believe in? † Erikson calls this quest to more deeply define a sense of self the adolescent’s â€Å"search for identity. † To refine their sense of identity, adolescents usually try out different â€Å"selves† in different situations – perhaps acting out one self at home, another with friends and still another at school and work. If two of these situations overlap – like when a teenager brings a friend home from school – the discomfort can be considerable. The teen may ask, â€Å"Which self is the real me? Which self should I be? † Often, this role confusion gets resolved by the gradual reshaping of a self-definition that unifies the various selves into a consistent and comfortable sense of who one is – an identity. But not always, Erikson believes that some adolescents forge their identity early, simply by taking on their parents’ values and expectations. Others may adopt a negative identity that defines itself in opposition to parents and society but in conformity with a particular peer group, complete perhaps with the shaved head or multi-colored coif. Still others never quite seem to find themselves or to develop strong commitments. For most, the struggle for identity continues past the teen years and reappears at turning points during adult life. During the first social stage, trust versus mistrust, an infant’s basic task is to develop a sense of trust in self, others, and the world. The infant needs to count on others and develop a sense of acceptance and security. This sense of trust is learned by being caressed and cared for. From Erikson’s viewpoint, if the significant others in an infant’s life provide the necessary love, the infant develops a sense of trust. When love is absent, the result is a general sense of mistrust in others. Clearly, infants who feel accepted are in a more favorable position to successfully meet future developmental crises than are those who do not receive adequate nurturing. However, Erikson postulates that since development is a ongoing lifelong process, personality is not fixed at any given time. Events, circumstances, and social relationships are dynamic and changing. Thus, even a child who emerged from the first stage of life with a strong sense of trust may become mistrustful and cy! nical if betrayed in later social relationships. Hence, personality is not viewed as fixed by the fifth year of life, as Freud believed, but remains fluid throughout the life span. Between the ages of one and three (Freud’s anal stage), children are developing a growing sense of control over their lives. They can now walk, run, climb, and get into all sorts of mischief. A sense of autonomy develops as they learn new skills and achieve a feeling of control over their environment. Thus Erikson’s titles this stage Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt. During this period, some parents, out of concern or impatience with their children’s progress may intervene and do things that the children should be doing by themselves. Other parents may demand a level of competence of which their children are not yet physically and/or emotionally capable. In either case, these children begin to doubt their own abilities and feel ashamed when they fail to live up to parental expectations. Children who fail to master the tasks of establishing some control over themselves and coping with the world around them develop a sense of shame and feelings of doubt about their capabilities During the next stage, Initiative versus Guilt, which takes place during the preschool years (ages 4 to 6 – Freud’s phallic stage), children seek to find out how much they can do. According to Erikson, the basic task of preschool years is to establish a sense of competence and initiative. Preschool children begin to initiate many of their own activities as they become physically and psychologically ready to engage in pursuits of their own choosing. If they are allowed realistic freedom to choose their own activities and make some of their own decisions, they tend to develop a positive orientation characterized by confidence to initiate actions and follow through on them. On the other hand, if they are unduly restricted, or if their choices are ridiculed, they tend to experience a sense of guilt and ultimately withdraw from taking an active and initiating stance. By the age of six, the child should enter elementary school. It is during this age that the stage of Industry versus Inferiority occurs. During the ensuing five years, the most important events in the child’s life revolve around setting and accomplishing goals related to school situations. When children are successful in mastering the many behaviors expected of them during these years, they develop feelings of competency and a sense of industry. They may express such feelings as: â€Å"I can do anything if I just work hard enough. Children who encounter failure during the early grades may experience severe handicaps later on. A child with learning problems may begin to feel like a worthless person. Such feelings may drastically affect his or her relationships with peers, which are also vital at this time. During the adolescent years, teens experience Identity versus Role Confusion. Typically, adolescents feel they are on center stage and everyone is looking at them. They are often highly critical of themselves and feel that others are equally critical. Their thoughts often turn inward. They look at themselves and question whether or not they measure up to their peers. They also begin thinking about lifelong goals and careers, wondering whether they will make it in the world of the adult. Their ruthless self-appraisal is often beneficial. It results in the development of values, social attitudes, and standards. This inward focus appears to be necessary for the development of a firm sense of self and of broader roles in the social order. During the stage of Intimacy versus Isolation, adolescence is now behind the individual and the early adult years loom ahead. Energies are focused on building careers, establishing lasting social ties, and achieving then maintaining intimate relationships. Marriage or cohabitation creates new demands on the individual – sharing, compromising, and relinquishing social mobility to some degree. Also, many young adults begin having children and raising families. Those who were unsuccessful in resolving their identity crises may find themselves isolated from mainstream society and unable to maintain healthy intimate relationships. The years between the ages of 35 and 60 are a time for learning how to live creatively with others; this period can be the most productive stage of an individual’s life. According to Erikson, the stimulus for continued growth in middle age is the crisis of Generatively versus Stagnation or Self-Absorption. By generatively, Erikson meant not just fostering children, but being productive in a broad sense – for example through creative pursuits in careers, in leisure-time activities, in volunteer work or caring for others. Two important qualities of the productive adult are the ability to love well and the ability to work well. Adults who fail to achieve a sense of productivity begin to stagnate, which s a form of psychological death. The years of maturity are typified by the stage of Integrity of the Self versus Despair. This is the most illuminating stage of a person’s life. If all the crises of earlier stages are resolved, looking back with satisfaction of a life well led is a healthy manifestation of self. Maintaining a sense of worth and personal integrity during the final years is natural. Those who could not resolve earlier crises will look upon the prospects of old age and death with a deep sense of dread and despair. Another primary concept to Erikson’s system is ego identity development and the ego strengths that delineate each of the eight stages. His system stresses the ego’s complete and stabilizing influences in a person’s life history. He depicts the ego from a psychosocial viewpoint as the hub of individual identity. As the ego develops through life crises, it gains the capacity to master in increasingly sophisticated ways the puzzles posed by inner and outer reality. Erikson proposed that ego strength is achieved in a sequence of psychosexual stages. Beginning in infancy, the child’s ego must first learn to trust itself and others to become autonomous and self-sufficient. With trust and autonomy come the virtues of hope and will, forms of ego strength that foster sufficient security for the child to risk the potential disappointment that hope entails, and sufficient independence of spirit for children to dare to initiate willingly their personal adaptation to their inescapable realities. Once these fundamental ego strengths are acquired, the child is able to acquire a sense of purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care and wisdom – the ego strengths associated with each stage. Erikson’s theory embodies a well-balanced concern for nonmothetic or universal psychological â€Å"laws† with some traditional psychoanalytic concern for the uniqueness of the individual, especially in the areas of clinical application and psychohistory. So where does all this theorizing leave Jenny Masterson? A Freudian psychoanalyst may have Jenny free associate to certain terms. Perhaps her free association would turn out something like this: Psychoanalyst: Jenny, I want you to relax and lay back. Close your eyes. Now, I want you to give me the first word that pops into your head when I say a certain word. For instance, if I said â€Å"Dog,† you might say, â€Å"Cat. † Jenny: No, if you said, â€Å"dog,† I would say â€Å"dependent. † Psycho: Interesting, why do you think you would say â€Å"dependent? † Jenny: â€Å"Well, they are aren’t they? I have to feed them, I have to bathe them, I have to wash them, I have to walk them – just like a small child. Except they won’t disobey you, and I expect they’d be a little more respectful of all that I would do for them. Psycho: Okay, the next word is religion. Jenny: Futile. Non-lasting. Psycho: Love Jenny: Useless. Really, love means nothing, just like marriage is meaningless. Psycho: I see. Next word, sex. Jenny: Ugh. So vulgar, dirty, disgusting. So beastly. Psycho: Okay. How about children? Jenny: Ungrateful. Possessions. Really, children just do not realize all that we do for them. We sacrifice, we slave so that their existence may be better and what do they do for us? Nothing. Just heartbreak, never ending hearbreak. Psycho: Okay, just one last word, woman. Jenny: Prostitute. Chip. Unclean. Most women are just so ugly, inside and out. I simply cannot stand their smiles – so inviting, those little trollops. Jenny had some major hang-ups in the area of sexuality. Perhaps all her â€Å"problems† stem from this one subject. Sex. Her hostility towards other women, her hinted-at incestuous relationship with Ross, her extreme jealousy of Ross’ girlfriends, her possessiveness, her lack of close friends – all of these can be traced back to her most important subject. Jenny might have been characterized as an anal character. It can be speculated that during her toilet training stage, she refused to give, was prudish and was retentive. It can be speculated that perhaps through unwise parental insistence, she may have come to value yet fear this psychical function and all the features associated with it. According to Freud, this type of person becomes orderly to the point of obsession, egocentric, picayunish, preoccupied with money and material things and obstinate. Jenny is all of these things. His theory also holds that sadomasochism is also a trait of the anal character. Jenny exhibits this. She inflicts and receives suffering all of her life. She is constantly asking for suffering from Glenn and Isabel when she continually insults them, yet they never give in and make her suffer. She creates situations where only suffering can result for her and others, like when Ross and her moved into the same flat. That was doomed to fail. She constan! tly obsessed over where he was, whom he was with, why he wasn’t paying rent – she drove herself crazy, and in the process alienated her son. Like any masochist, she seems in a strangely perverted way to relish her martyrdom and enjoy her distress. Freudian theory holds that the instincts seek pleasure and therefore that Jenny’s persistence in her treacherous behavior must give her some gratification. While her behavior goes against the very grain of survival, and therefore must be neurotic, it serves to gratify her masochistic needs. Continuing with this theme, Jenny believed sex to be dirty, and beastly. It is not known much about her marriage, but one can hardly picture Jenny as a wanton woman, or even as a woman with normal sexual drives. Her marriage may have even been a product of rebellion, again an anal trait, against her family. The principle explanation for Jenny in a Freudian analysis would turn to Jenny’s confused sexual identity. It might be said that she never worked through her oedipal complex successfully. She did identify with her mother, according to her sister however. By identifying with her mom, she may have taken on masculine role. After all, by 18 she was the main breadwinner in the house. Perhaps she wished to possess her mother, since she had taken on the male role. When she married, this psychosexual confusion was not resolved. In fact, it may have been worsened by her husband’s death. It is said that Jenny did not grieve for her husband. Perhaps she merely transferred her womanly affection onto Ross, expecting a relationship from him that was like that of a lover and not a son. Her jealousy over his girlfriends and her kisses under the moonlight certainly point towards unnatural feelings towards him. Perhaps, with Ross’ birth, she was able to find a replacement for her lack of penis. Ross may have been a projection of her true masculine nature. She was able to live her life in the masculine image by being one with Ross. When he died, she kept his robe and pipe, thus cherishing the remnants of her/his masculine identity. Her love of Ross gives an impression of an incestuous relationship. She has fits of jealousy over his lovers, calls him, â€Å"sex mad† and talks of him like a lover (†kissed under the stars†). She is very delusional when she believes that to Ross, she is responsible for his existence but that he owes her nothing. Her actions speak contrary to this. She is the perfect martyr, constantly making exaggerated sacrifices for Ross. In reality, she expected him to repay her with undying devotion. She wanted to possess him.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Painters Keys Community Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Painters Keys Community - Essay Example These may all sound different from each perspective such as a painter might not be able to play the piano nor dance and a musician might not be able to paint, sculpt, or dance, but this fact does not alter the fact about art forms being related to one another. Just when a dance cannot be possibly performed without a piece – one that is a product of rhythmic and melodic tune - music is a necessity for a dance performance. Hence, a musical composer arranges his piece, which may be potentially used as a piece for a dance performance, while the choreographer relies his dance steps to the beat of the musical arranger. Likewise, a painter, a sculptor, and an architect, despite incongruity of their art forms, all agree towards the universal knowledge of lines, curves, and colors, which they use as a fundamental basis of their artwork. These are just few examples of how various artists function as a whole. The realm of arts takes a wide variety of forms in which people from various walks of life engage themselves for various reasons. One thing is certain though, that they undertake it for purposes of self-expression, entertainment, and appreciation enabling their rather drab existence become an artful and a less-menacing one. As artists express themselves through their artworks, they deliver a distinct essence of art appreciation rooted in history and social interaction. All artworks are thus, a product of both individual and social perceptions in which the artist partakes in his social surrounding and reflects this through his art. His art, whatever form it is, reflects the human condition, the social trend, and the human passion at the time it was created. It is to this end that various artists function as a whole in the realm of the arts. Another unifying factor of various artists is the incessant intent of the arts towards appreciation. This is one of the fundamental functions of the arts, if not ultimate, embodied in every piece of work as the

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Network Security Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Network Security - Essay Example Cyber security made the greatest move on the discovery of Stuxnet, computer software, which is believed to be the first warfare weapon and a computer virus that attacks and destroys industrial computer programs. Over the past years there has been a great debate about the Stuxnet virus. This computer worm was first used to wipe sixty percent of Iran’s computer network and programs. The Stuxnet attack has far-reaching policy implications and cyber-security, since it demonstrates that states are vulnerable to crippling cyber actions from other states. The source and the exact purpose of the virus are not well known to the international community. The software was basically designed to target industrial equipment. It is an IT discovery which attacks programs and destroys information aimed for an attack. Since the discovery of the software, different opinions regarding its application have been forwarded by many computer experts among other members of the public. Views against the device have been raised while other individuals considered it a security device that can be used to improve security in a nation (Reveron, 2012). An observation on this device portray that there is a difference in the style of coding used in the software that initially affected the targeted states and the software that deploys once the virus has penetrated the state’s defenses. The device has therefore been believed to have been a collaborative effort between its two developers, the United States and Israel. According to other experts in various defense departments, the highly complex computer software was the first of its kind. It is said to have been written to specifically target critical mission control systems that run a specific combination of software and hardware. Many experts believe that the kind of research coordinating and planning required to undertake this specific kind of multi-stage attack on an industrial control system is most likely

Saturday, July 27, 2019

'Fair values good, historical costs bad' (after Orwell; Animal Farm) Essay

'Fair values good, historical costs bad' (after Orwell; Animal Farm). Discuss - Essay Example Have the bean-counters tired of numbers? What in the balance sheet’s name is happening? The simple reason for the new mantra is that the accounting profession has decided on a new set of standards for the valuation of assets. Perhaps never before in accounting history has an issue generated such controversy as the debate between fair value and historical cost, which is reaching mythic proportions as a battle between good and evil. The accounting profession is one of the pillars of capitalism, a great invention of the modern era because it allows for transparency, fairness, and trust in the conduct of business (Johnson, 1975). Without accounting standards, it would have been impossible for the world of business to have gone as far as it has, simply because we would not have many of the aspects of business that we now take for granted. Valuation of corporate shares, borrowing and lending of funds, capitalisation of assets, and even pricing of products and services would have been problematic, as it was in the early days of business when the words caveat emptor (Buyer Beware!) was the norm. In addition, it is easier to calculate profit and loss and to price risk because accountants have agreed on generally accepted accounting practice. Investors are better informed, owners of corporations can sleep better at night, and millions of workers can get instant feedback on their collective performance thanks to the accounting standards that help establish share prices, cash flows, and liquidity, giving each stakeholder a clearer picture of its position. Accounting reports have come a long way in the last hundred years as to report the true position of a company’s accounts, but as recent events have made clear, notably the scandals associated with formerly high-flying companies Enron and WorldCom in the U.S., accounting standards need to be continuously and carefully defined

Friday, July 26, 2019

Modern Children are Being Over-Medicated Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Modern Children are Being Over-Medicated - Essay Example Currently, about half of all American children aged 2 to 4 are being prescribed with psychotropic drugs. In just 14 years, the number of children taking psychotropic drugs has gone up by 327% (CHAADA). The problem of overmedication, however, dates longer than that. The World Health Organization warned doctors and parents as early as 1966 that the use of behavior-altering drugs, such as Ritalin, can have serious effects on children (Doherty). Children are at great risks of overmedication since most of the drugs psychiatrists administer to them have only been tested on adults. Frontline quotes Dr. Patrick Bacon saying that the medicating children with psychotropic drugs are â€Å"to some extent an experiment.† If the â€Å"gamble† does not pay off, it could lead to serious physical and psychological side effects, just as in the case of Matthew above. It is true that children who are behaving differently than normal need medical attention to prevent any behavioral illness from reaching its peak. If they are not given the proper medication, both children and their parents will suffer. Treating behavioral disorders will also help children function properly in school and live normally with other children. More than anything else, early diagnosis and treatment would give children a greater chance grow into normal adults. The effects of the wrong diagnosis outweigh the benefits of the early medication. As in the case of Matthew described above, improper medication could be fatal. In the case of another child, Jacob Solomon, his parents put him on Ritalin after he was diagnosed with ADHD. The parents did see improvements in the behavior of their five-year-old child but the drug caused him to develop severe muscular contraction around his neck (Frontline). Aside from physical side effects such as this, powerful behavior-altering drugs could also have psychological effects.

Woman Rights by Sarah Margaret Fuller Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Woman Rights by Sarah Margaret Fuller - Essay Example A woman's place was deeply connected to domestic duties. She was expected to cook and clean the house while tending to children's needs. She was not expected to hold elective offices or make decisions aside from her husband's approval. Moreover, she could claim no rights for children to which she gave birth. A woman's place was simple; she conformed. However, a different breed of woman was on the rise. Sarah Fuller's father instilled a somewhat nonconformist element in her at a very young age. Timothy Fuller, one who revered education, insisted his daughter fulfill a dual role-as caretaker of the household and as an educated individual (Macdonald). Before the age of four, Fuller's father forced her to read. By age eight, Fuller had to get out of bed at 5 a.m. to begin household duties but was not permitted to go to bed until completion of her lessons-which oftentimes was not until 11 p.m. In addition to tending to her six siblings, Fuller maintained the household and diligently studied. Not only did her father instill a love for learning in Fuller, but he also instilled an element not compatible with society's expectations of a woman. On one hand, society granted Fuller the opportunity to grow. She pursued the art of education and displayed her abilities through intellectual exchange with others.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Team-work Homework Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Team-work Homework - Assignment Example When the two companies do not advertise, both King and Babil Company will have a payoff of 150. This payoff is beneficial to the two companies compared to adverting process. In the domain strategy, the two companies that is King firm and Babil firm have a dominating choice of not advertising. Irrespective of the Babil decision, the King company will not take the risk of advertisement, lest King know the secret of the competitor. From the outcomes stipulated on the table, it is evident that high outcomes arise when the two companies decide not to advertise, independently. The two companies felt that rather than getting a payoff of 300 and 80 for their strategy, they feel it better to win 150 rather than making their products available to their public and their competitors. The best outcome for the dominant strategy is when King fails to advertisement, as well as Babil. In Nash equilibrium the two companies use the methods to predict the outcome of another company in the social arts. The payoff functions represent the firm’s preferences over the action profile of the company where the action profile of King and Babil will portray the list of actions. In this strategy, king will have an incentive in shying away from the advertisement after considering Babil options. Neither Babil not King shall have an incremental benefit of changing their motives. Under this strategy, just like other strategies discussed above, the nash equilibrium will be attained when the companies choose not to advertise their products. The outcome is illustrated as shown in the matrix

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Advantages and disadvantages of the health insurance system in US Essay

Advantages and disadvantages of the health insurance system in US - Essay Example anaged care insurance systems, through PPOs and HMOs in America, hopes to influence the rules of supply and demand in consumer care, and Medicare provide programs that increase accessibility for the poor and elderly. But many think that healthcare organizations need to reach out to the community in terms of educational programs that seek to foster the health of the community as a whole, rather than treat ailments in a specialized manner and have it end at that. Accessibility, as well as education, is an important goal for the model healthcare program in terms of conceptual framework. attractive alternative to many people who are facing financial challenges. The rapid growth of individuals from Medicare who have gone to managed care during the nineties is a strong portrayal of how popular managed care is in terms of what it offers, which is in many cases substantially more than Medicare. Many managed care insurance providers offer prescription drug coverage and other types of coverage that are not covered by Medicare. But many wonder whether managed care operations can keep cost effective with so many clients and so much liability and responsibility to individuals on these will have to be solved for the future to look very bright. In the US insurance system, HMOs are a relatively new development, although some of them have roots in the mid-twentieth century. There are still application-based and ethical imperatives to ask the status of these programs, especially in terms of their relevance to government healthcare programs as supplementary services and their position in a dynamic healthcare economy that is becoming increasingly privatized. This reflects the essential debate between government control and interference in national healthcare. That is,

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Relationship between the Management Layer, Board and Staff Assignment

Relationship between the Management Layer, Board and Staff - Assignment Example In the functional structure, employees in the organizations tend to perform with the specialized set of tasks. It would be easy for them to work with their specialized skills and be apt to feel comfortable (Iqbal, n.d.). With this structure, there would be a direct relationship with the management and the staff in each department product/service line because of direct supervision. There would be the close relationship, interaction, communication and quick response for both the management and the staff. The board at the same time, to which the management reports, can easily determine on what to focus for there is an open engagement of relationship.The system and internal structure, rewards, and benefits, application and teamwork are needed so that the board, management, and staff would enable to work successfully (â€Å"The Five Elements,† 2009). The system and internal structure of the organization should be sufficient for the survival of the member of the business. Rewards an d benefits should be given consideration so that loyalty among them would be achieved. Lastly, there should be the application of the system and teamwork so that success would be realized. Iqbal, N. (n.d.). Effective organization structure acts as the lifeblood of business. Ezine Articles.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Personal & Professional Development Essay Example for Free

Personal Professional Development Essay 1.1  Cunningham1 has defined self-managed learning as â€Å"†¦idealised adult action learning†. Therefore, self learning is a process where the learner develops their learning goals, decides on strategies to make it happen, identifies resources needed to achieve it and adopts the process to evaluate their achievement. Self managed learning can only be effective if a person has the ability to independently decide about their learning and can manage this without much institutional support. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that most people, though understanding the need for such learning approach, are unable to identify and manage their learning without guidance and support from an institution. Hence, people go to an institution to learn. However, It is the responsibility of the learner to take charge of their learning. In an adult learning environment, where most learners have been out of touch with learning for a while, it is important that the tutors initially provide hands on approach to guide the learners. Gradually, ‘tutor dependency’ reduces and the learner becomes more self dependent, starting to manage their learning more effectively. Self learning process can be facilitated through research, using online tools such as web logs, wikis, search engine facilities, use of social software and other multimedia tools such as audio and video equipment. 1.2  Lifelong learning is a process that takes place throughout an individual’s life based on their life experiences, interaction with others and range of different circumstances which are used to acquire knowledge. It is, defined as the ongoing, voluntary, and self-motivated pursuit of knowledge for either personal or professional reasons’’[2). There are various methods of learning, which can be termed as ‘life long learning’. These are: †¢ Home schooling : People learning at home rather than at an institute. †¢ Adult education : Enrolling in an adult learning course to gain formal qualifications for work or leisure. †¢ Continuing education : Courses to gain further knowledge without getting any formal qualification. †¢ Knowledge work : On-the-job training but can also include practical courses for professional development. †¢ Personal learning environment: Using a range of sources and tools including online applications. Lifelong learning is the most effective way to enhance personal and professional development. Therefore, all the above methods should be encouraged and used to gain relevant knowledge in relation to an individual’s goals and aspirations. A method used by a person depends on what their personal learning goals are, and on the answers to the key questions of what, when, where, how and why. 1.3  The benefits of self managed learning to individuals and organisations are many fold. The key benefits are : †¢ Ability to choose the content :Allows people to pick and choose what they are going to learn, and who they are going to learn from, depending on personal level of knowledge and preferences. †¢ Determining the schedule : Allows people to adapt learning process to their personal agenda, without depending on time schedules imposed by others. †¢ Learning with passion : Topic is chosen based on what the learner wants to learn, making the learner more engaged and the learning process more enjoyable. †¢ Sense of accomplishment and satisfaction : As the learner has chosen the topic, it provides greater degree of satisfaction and a sense of accomplishment within learners. †¢ More productive life : As it is a learner guided process, there is more passion and commitment within the learner about their learning, enhancing their chances of securing more expertise in the area. †¢ Develop expertise and skill : After gaining skill and expertise in the chosen field, a person is more likely to become an expert in the area, with others seeking their expertise and be willing to pay for it. 2.1 Since leaving school, I have worked within the catering sector all my working life, initially as a General Assistant in the kitchen, helping cook and chef. However, through my competence and performance, I was able to gradually rise to the position of Head Chef, with people working under my supervision. This allowed me to have experience of managing people effectively in a challenging fast moving environment. In addition, I was able to gain adequate knowledge and understanding about various health safety guidelines through relevant training, including gaining relevant qualifications. I was able to comply with the professional standards for a Chef through the training I received. Also, working closely with the management, I was able to understand fully the key aims and objectives of the business and focused on ensuring that through my work, I help the business to fulfil them. It is important for a restaurant to provide good quality food and customer service – the two key aspect for such business. Unless the quality of the food and the level of customer service is to their satisfaction, customers will not come back, which is vital for a business. So, my role as a Head Chef is crucial to the success of the company. Since the restaurant is doing well, I feel confident that I have contributed towards the achievement of the company’s aims and objectives, complying with the professional standards required for my job. 2.2  Having worked in the kitchen all my working life, I would now like to have a change of career and move to management, where I would like to manage the whole business, either by setting up my own restaurant or be employed in a restaurant owned by others. In order to help me achieve my aim, I would need proper qualification, understanding and knowledge about how to manage a restaurant efficiently. Therefore, my development needs are as follows : †¢ How to devise an effective business plan †¢ How to prepare a comprehensive sales and marketing strategy †¢ How to be a competent business manager †¢ How to manage a business efficiently and profitably In order to acquire the knowledge required to achieve those aims, I need to enrol in a business course which will not only allow me to have the relevant knowledge but would also enable me to have thorough understanding of these areas, resulting in a qualification. In addition to the areas mentioned above, I also need to focus on some other areas, such as enhancing my literacy and numeracy skills as it would be necessary if I am to manage to restaurant. I also need to improve my social and communication skills too, which is vital for a business within the hospitality sector. 2.3 Since I don’t currently have any formal qualification other than GCSE, the only way for me to achieve my goal of enrolling in a course to acquire relevant knowledge and gain qualification would be to enrol in a course that does not have an entry requirement of any formal qualification and would accept someone with only GCSE. So, I started researching about various courses available that is relevant to me and is available for people who only have GCSE. I have identified that the Business Management HND is the best course for me as it offers all relevant aspects to help me achieve my developmental needs while allowing people with only GCSE to enrol. Therefore, I have enrolled in this course. However, I am seriously considering taking this further and go into further studies on business management, either through university or an informal course in continuing education, which may not result in a formal qualification but would provide me with the knowledge I need to achieve my goals. I feel that enrolling in the Business management HND is the first step towards achieving my aim of acquiring all relevant information and gain relevant qualifications regarding running a successful restaurant business. I also researched about courses to facilitate my aim of enhancing my literacy, numeracy, social and communication skills and have identified some of the courses that will be relevant to me and would assist me in achieving my goals.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Use of the path-goal theory

Use of the path-goal theory Use of the path-goal theory The Reasoning for the Use of the Path-Goal Theory in the Jeanne Lewis Case Jeanne Lewis, by any measure of the imagination is any prospective employers dream team member. She was committed, articulate, productive, smart, sensitive, motivated, and responsive to challenges. According to Peter Drucker (1998), â€Å"Effective leadership is not about making speeches or being liked; leadership is defined by results, not attributes† (Hersey, Blanchard Johnson, 2008, p. 109). Lewiss team tripled direct product profitability (DPP) and invigorated sales of under-performing stores. All these and much more were demonstrated time and time again throughout Lewiss career at Staples. The Leadership Behaviors that Lewis Used with Her Employees Lewis engaged in different types of leadership behaviors depending on the situation at hand. Her approach to situations and the type of behavior she used further supports Marian Andersons statement that â€Å"Leadership should be born out of the understanding of the needs of those who would be affected by it† (Hersey, Blanchard Johnson, 2008, p. 108). Shortly after Lewis assumed the position of the marketing manager at Staples, she assessed the situation regarding low performance of the stores, and she quickly came to the conclusion that strong leadership was lacking. As a result, she substituted 25 store associates over a 12-month period, which turned around the stores performance for better. Achievement-oriented leadership behavior was what Lewis utilized to achieve this result. Secondly, the tripling of the direct product profitability (DPP) by Lewiss team was another area where Lewis demonstrated a different type of leadership behavior-participative. Lewiss direct report s and peers appreciated her thoroughness when it came to getting her to support their position. The fact that her team members understood this much about her indicated she carried her team along while making decisions. Another way Lewis demonstrated a different type of leadership behavior was duringthe time she tried to foster relationships between the marketing organization and the in-house advertising agency. Her bimonthly meeting was met with stiff resistance. Realizing this was not a good strategy, Lewis changed the meeting to a one-on-one type that yielded results. Here, Lewis demonstrated a supportive type of leadership behavior, since this is what appeared to be desirable to the team members at this point. Also, Lewis used a directive leadership style when she warned her staff she would want to â€Å"ride shotgun† with them. She made it clear to the team what her expectations were. This leadership behavior typically results in improved satisfaction and performance. The director of marketing administration was satisfied with Lewiss strategy to such an extent that she set up one-on-one meetings between her team members and Lewis. Lewiss Leadership Behavior as it Relates to the Characteristics of Path-Goal Theory Path-Goal theory was premised not only on explaining which leadership style was effective, but why the leadership style was effective. House and Mitchell (2008) described path-goal theory as how a leader influences a followers perceived work goals, personal goals, and path to goal achievement. House and Dessler (1974), described path-goal theory as the effective leadership behavior needed in any instance which depends on the characteristics of the situation and the followers characteristics. Theresult Lewiss team was able to achieve as a result of her strategy change could have influenced her team members work goal, thus prompting them to perform well. Secondly, the tripling of the direct product profitability (DPP) by Lewiss team was another area that showcased path-goal theory. Lewiss team members and peers appreciated her thoroughness when it came to getting her to support their position. The fact that her team members had this level of understanding about her clarified the path to their goal, which then showed on the DPP result. Another way Lewis demonstrated characteristics of the pat-goal theory occurred duringher initial days as the vice president of retail marketing, where she set up several one-on-one meetings with her direct reports so that she could understand what part of the marketing puzzle each of them constituted. The marketing administration director saw something in this strategy, which led her to make a move to setup one-on-one meeting between Lewis and each of her own team members. This could have been as a result of the fact that Lewiss behavior was motivating to the extent that this director saw it could influence the attainment of her goal. Furthermore, the productivity that ensued after Lewis changed her strategy to be having a one-on-one status meeting with her team members after her initial bimonthly meeting approach flopped exemplified path-goal theory in that her team members could have gotten their work done due to the fact that th ey saw a clear path to them achieving their goal. The Behavior of Employees in Relation to Lewiss Leadership Style Several of Lewiss direct reports commented on her behaviors. One of them said: â€Å"Jeannes charm could be disarming. She worked really hard, and her personality motivated you. She tended to manage tightly at first, then loosened the reins. She challenged us a lot, and invited us to challenge each other†(Suesse Hill, 2005, p. 86). The directive leadership behavior Lewis used when she warned her staff she would want to â€Å"ride shotgun† with them was well accepted-as shown by the reaction of the marketing administration director. She was so satisfied with Lewiss strategy that she setup one-on-one meeting between her team members and Lewis. Employeeswarmlywelcomed Lewiss supportive leadership style as depicted with her change in strategy after the time she tried to foster a relationship between the marketing organization and the in-house advertising agency. Even though her bimonthly meeting was met with stiff resistance, her one-on-one meetings yielded good results. Thirdly, the participative leadership style used by Lewis during the tripling of the direct product profitability (DPP) was received well by employees. Initially they had mixed feelings about Lewiss leadership behavior, which one of them first felt was micro-managing before realizing that Lewis was just someone who liked to promote dialogue and debate to ensure that the best decision was arrived at. The fact that Lewis and her team in marketing while she was a manager there were able to invigorate sales performance within a 12-month period was an indication that she carried them along well and they were pleased with the things that they were able to archive together. This is consistent with achievement-oriented leadership behavior. Aspects of the Relationship of Employee Behavior as it Relates to the Characteristics of the Path-Goal Theory Path-Goal theory explains leaders effectiveness and the impact that leaders have on the followers motivation. The framework of instrumentality theory and path-goal theory suggest that the effectiveness of any leader at any given point depends on the characteristics of the situation and the characteristics of the follower. Several instances of this were observed throughout Lewiss carrier at Staples. It was repeated time and time again that Lewis had a personality that many may have misconstrued because of its confrontational nature. During her early days at Staples, Lewis herself acknowledged that she might not be able to work across the organization. At this point, she had barely been appointed a leader. One could then infer that all the zeal and the willingness to get things done was as a result of the belief that her hard work would someday get her into a management position, which she highly valued. The rejection that Lewis received when she started a bimonthly meeting was not a result of the ineffectiveness of the new structure she was trying to put in place; it was due to the fact that this did not influence her team members expectations, and their work and personal goal perhaps did not hinge on this. The same structure when changed to a one-on-one status meeting yielded the desired results. According to the observation made by one of the managers about the one-on-one status meetings, â€Å"She asks the kind of questions that provoked real interaction, so it really is a joint discussion† (Suesse Hill, 2005, p. 86). The South Africa studies around participation, individual differences, and job satisfaction among black and white employees results are better explained by the path-goal theory. Contrary to the expected conclusion that participative leadership is positively related to the individual differences, the theory concluded that participative leadership actually depends on the attributes of the task regardless of the predispositions of the subordinates. In the same vein, a study of the subordinates achievement (NACH) and affiliation (NAFF) needs as moderators of leader path-goal relationship conducted in Pennsylvania State University, drawn several interesting conclusions. One of the findings is that high NACH individuals prefer leaders with good strategies, policies, and rules who clarify paths to achievement (Orpen Ndlovu, 1977).

Which Factors Make Advertising Effective Marketing Essay

Which Factors Make Advertising Effective Marketing Essay What makes advertising effective.: this Report aims to answer this essential issue because it is the key for achieving -or not- the goals pursued by every company that invests in advertising. The general question has been divided in three areas, depending on the type of consumers response that advertising aims to arouse: cognitive, affective or conative, according to the famous Hierarchy of Effects model proposed by Lavidge and Steiner in 1961. In addition, the report focuses on the role of Music in advertising, with the purpose to highlight how its use can help to achieve efficacy in advertising. Five recommendations are identified through the report. Advertisers should first choose the media mix able to reach as many consumers as possible from the target audience (Ogilvy, 1985). Using appealing creativity (Dahlen et Al, 2010) and increasing the frequency of the message (Pickton and Broderick, 2005) is required to pass successfully through all the selective phases of consumers influence process, in order to make them memorize the contents of advertising. Music can be very helpful both for gaining consumers attention and giving a mnemonic quality to the message (Sutherland, 2008). An effective way to build an emotional link with consumers is referring to common culture (Godin, 1999). Jingles are able to involve consumers, at the point that they can become part of consumers cultural background of people (Sutherland, 2008). It is necessary to understand how the purchasing decision is taken by consumers in order to affect their behaviour; the FCB matrix by Vaughn (1986) identifies four types of purchasing process and suggests the quantity and quality of information to provide for each of them in order to have an impact on the decision making process. Since music sets up an entertaining mood, its use appears to be appropriate for the feel products and not for the think products (Arens et Al, 2011). As most of these factors refers to the ability of understanding consumers minds, the report has confirmed that psychology represents a basic support for marketing functions as the making of effective advertising (Foxall et Al, 1998). INTRODUCTION This paper aims to identify the factors which make advertising effective. The research starts stating a basic condition then, since efficacy is the ability to bring about the intended result (Oxford dictionary, 2007), the report analyses which are the marketing objectives pursued by advertising. The Hierarchy of Effects Model proposed by Lavidge and Steiner (1961) is considered pivotal in the communication process. Accordingly, the report uses a tripartite approach in order to better isolate and identify the factors that make advertising successful whether the response sought from consumers is cognitive, affective or conative. The report then operates a specific analysis on the role of Music in advertising, showing how music can be a very useful tool to reach efficacy (Sutherland, 2008) for all the three pursued responses shown previously. Recommendations and Conclusions about the topic complete the analysis. Practical examples chosen among the most famous companies provide evidence to the theoretical analysis; further examples can be found in the appendices. This research has been performed through the method of the literary review: books, papers and articles of famous Marketers and Psychologists are used as sources. A Basic Condition Advertising is undoubtedly a central part of promotion, but compared to the 4 Ps of marketing mix theorized by McCartney (1960), it represents only an aspect of the marketing effort made by the company (Pickton and Broderick, 2005). To reach and maximize the efficacy of advertising, firms should develop a deep know-how of their market, becoming what Llambin (2008) calls market-driven companies. This is achievable only by large investments in market research, in order to know as much as possible about consumers and competitors. As Cowles and Kiecker stated (1998), market research is important not only to identify the most profitable target segments, but also to develop a message content that is appealing to them, and to identify the most effective and efficient marketing communications mix elements and media. Companies have to focus all their functions to the market: only Market-driven companies will be really able to set the most effective advertising (Llambin, 2008). The HoE model: three responses to be aroused As advertising is a non-personal form of communication (Fill,2009), marketing can be supported by the studies on the communication process. Among them, the hierarchy of effects model proposed by Lavidge and Steiner (1961) states sthat when the ad message reaches the consumer, following the steps of the SMRC communication model (Berlo, 1960), the receiver responds by progressively undertaking three phases: the cognitive phase as first, then the affective and finally the conative. Specifically, consumers will pass through these sequential stages: Awareness, Knowledge, Liking, Preference, Conviction, Purchase. [Figure A] Figure A : Sequential stages of Lavidge and Steiner model (1961) Source: http://www.learnmarketing.net/Hierarchy%20Of%20Effects.jpg Using this tripartite approach, the marketing objectives become more definite and therefore it is possible to identify more precisely the key factors for achieving efficacy. Firms should then set up a specific advertising campaign targeted for each of the three macro-responses they want to arouse in the audience (Lavidge and Steiner, 1961). As a confirmation, even the DAGMAR model (Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results) proposed by R.H. Colley in 1961 suggests that any stage should provide the objective for Marketing Communication independent of the rest (Pickton and Broderick, 2005). The following three Mc Donalds adverts clearly show this differentiated approach. In the first one [Figure B], nothing but the apposition of the two logos (the wi-fi one made by chips) is used: since this ad wants to make the audience learn the service provided, it refers to the cognitive phase. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_I9lJuLPsXSs/S0phHAFT6fI/AAAAAAAAJ9s/TR7j4eEnYWQ/s400/Cool+and+Beautiful+McDonald%E2%80%99s+Advertising+10.jpg) Figure B. Source: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_I9lJuLPsXSs/S0phHAFT6fI/AAAAAAAAJ9s/TR7j4eEnYWQ/s400/Cool+and+Beautiful+McDonald%E2%80%99s+Advertising+10.jpg In the second one [Figure C], the baby approaching the hamburger evokes feelings of affection for the food offered by the company; an home atmosphere is aroused. Emotional persuasion is the first aim for the affective phase. http://www.breastfeedingsymbol.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2007/08/mcdonalds.jpg Figure C. Source: http://www.breastfeedingsymbol.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2007/08/mcdonalds.jpg In the third one [Figure D], the invitation to take an action is extremely clear: consumers should have breakfast at Mc Donalds on Mondays, convinced by the free coffee. This ad aims to induce a change in the consumers behaviour: it refers to the conative phase. http://www.mcdonaldsstl.com/images/FreeCoffeeMondays-graphic.jpg Figure D. Source: http://www.mcdonaldsstl.com/images/FreeCoffeeMondays-graphic.jpg The main limit of HoE is its rigidity: consumers do not always undertake these steps sequentially, because of their irrationality; however, the existence of these three kinds of responses is widely accepted also among the critics (Barry and Howard, 1990). Accordingly, it is possible to  reformulate the central question in a more detailed way: which elements are necessary in advertising, in order to improve the companys performance in brand awareness (1), in the affective relationship with the consumers (2), and in the sales (3)? 1 Cognitive response The goal of these campaigns is to ensure that customers are properly aware of the brand; making clear the brand positioning is the main aim (Egan, 2007). Reach is the first key factor. Pelsmacker (2007) defines it as the number or percentage of people who are expected to be exposed to the advertisers message during a specified period . Reach plays the either/or role in the SMRC process: if the company does not reach the consumers, no response can be aroused. Therefore, the choice of the most appropriate media mix to reach the target segments becomes crucial for the success of the advertising campaign (Ogilvy, 1985). According to the selective influence process theories, people play a very active role as receivers in the communication process (Karlz and Lazarsfeld, 1955). There are unconscious and social intervening variables which affect the final internalization of the message. Since only the memorized information is able to affect the consumers behaviours the ability to pass through the selective phases of the consumer influence process is the second key factor (Karlz and Lazarsfeld, 1955). To win the receivers attention, it is required to overtake what Wundt (1896) calls the absolute threshold, that is the minimum psychic intensity an individual needs for reacting to a stimulus. For this reason, the effort to provide appealing creativity to the advert gains great importance (Dahlen et Al, 2010); moreover, since the traditional media are today overcrowded (Levinson, 2007), creativity can make adverts emerge to the consumers eyes. A clear example can be represented by the winner of the Best Use of Blu Tac in a Shop Window Postcard Space category in the Chip Shop Awards 2012. Clearasil posted a completely and intensely white postcard: impossible not to see. Figure E. Source: http://www.chipshopawards.com/ Clearasil is a brand of beauty products against skin imperfections (www.clearasil.co.uk) Use of creativity can also have negative impacts: it is difficult to define the line between great effect and great scandal (Godin, 1999). [see Appendix I] In choosing how often to transmit the advertising message, psychology supports marketing once again (Foxall et Al, 1998). I.V. Pavlov developed the notion of conditioned reflex (1927): opposed to the innate reflex it is a learned reaction to a positive or negative stimulus. In marketing, this means that the repetition of a message will increase its understanding; thats why frequency plays a key role. Frequency measures the number of times, on average, that a member of the target audience is exposed to a message or, more accurately, to the media (Pickton and Broderick, 2005). Increasing the frequency helps making the advertise effective but, according to the Curve of Wundt (1896), if the intensity of the stimulus exceeds a certain limit it is even possible to arouse anxiety, nervousness and irritation in the receivers. 2 Affective response Here, the main goal is to create an affective link with consumers, in order to persuade them appreciating the brand and making a preference for it (Fill, 2009). The more the content of a message is associated to paradigmatic knowledge, the more immediate and simple is its decoding by the receiver (Grandori, 1999): thats why advertising should carry associations recalling to the common culture to be effective in building an emotional link with the audience (Godin, 1999). Among all the cultural aspects, political studies have shown that the more compelling ones are common roots ; common habits ; famous figures (Gabrielsen, 2010). The use of cultural associations can be clearly found in Chryslers spot for the launch of the new 200 model, shown during the 2011 edition of Super Bowl. The core of the message highlights the origin of the machine, manufactured in Detroit: Thats who we are. Thats our story. (à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦) Because when it comes to luxury, its as much about where its from, as who its for. Now were from America, but this isnt New York City, or the Windy city.(à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦) This is the Motor city. And this is what we do. The new Chrysler 200 has arrived. Imported from Detroit. [see Appendix II] Casting famous figures (VIP) as testimonial and being present at the big events widely enjoyed and cherished by people (as the recent Olympics in London 2012) are other effective ways to involve the audience (Arens et Al, 2011) [see Appendix III and IV] Thanks to these associations, every time that consumers get in touch with the reminded cultural aspect, they will also remember the linked brand (Godin, 1999).[see Appendix V] This cultural approach shows some limits. Since culture is a sphere of meanings related to the past, the new products which aim to highlight innovation as their core quality cant take the best benefits from cultural associations (Ogilvy, 1985). Moreover, relying on VIP means accepting the risk of linking to them the name of the brand also when something negative is referred to them (Arens et Al, 2011). [see Appendix VI] 3 Conative response In order to affect consumers behaviours with advertising, it is necessary to understand how their decision making process works. The model developed by Vaughn for Foote Cone and Belding in 1980, known as the FCB matrix, considers it as driven by two variables: the level of involvement (high-low) and the type of approach to the purchase (rational-emotional). (McWilliam, 1997; Vaughn, 1980 and 1986). The result is the identification of 4 macro-type of purchasing process, each one requiring different kinds of information to be affected: differences are both in quantity high and detailed or low and summarized- and quality -emotional or rational of information. (Vaughn, 1986). In Figure F, some exemplar products are placed in the 4 quadrants of the FCB matrix. Figure F. Source: Vaugh, 1980 Therefore, advertising can be effective only if it provides the consumers with the kind of information they look for in their decision making process, this one being identified by the quadrant the product is placed in. (Vaughn, 1986). The analysis of 4 different decision making processes is now addressed, referring to the model of Vaughn (1986): High involvement / rational. People look for the real facts, they need to gain the confidence they are doing the right choice (e.g. Mortgage). The way to be effective is to highlight all the product competitive benefits as well as the company know-how, and to provide the consumers with positive feedbacks . [Figure G]http://www.okeefeestateagents.com/_microsites/paul_okeefe/docs/images/homepage/rightColAdvert/need-a-mortgage.jpg Figure G. Source: http://www.okeefeestateagents.com/_microsites/paul_okeefe/docs/images/homepage/rightColAdvert/need-a-mortgage.jpg High involvement / emotional. Consumers want to learn about and feel the experience (e.g. Holidays). Companies should provide content rich media with compelling personal feedbacks, music and everything else able to make the consumers taste the experience. [Figure H] Figure H. Source: www.adcracker.com Low involvement / rational. People usually buy by habit (e.g. toothpaste). Underlining the incentives to change habits as sale coupons can be effective. [Figure I]http://c3240dd96f54819fb6f2-90846526673b19d9a04c27097b58cb86.r6.cf2.rackcdn.com/2011/09/optic-white-coupon.jpg Figure I. Source: www.cuckooforcoupondeals.com Low involvement / emotional. People often looks for sensory or psychological gratification (e.g. Movies). Showing sensory rich imagery can be successful. [Figure J]http://www.filmjabber.com/movie-blog/wp-content/uploads/2007/11/the-eye-poster.jpg Figure J. Source: http://www.filmjabber.com/movie-blog/wp-content/uploads/2007/11/the-eye-poster.jpg The limit of the FCB matrix is the difficulty to plot the product in the right quadrant, because of the inconsistencies between consumers and companies perceptions of it (Dahlen et Al, 2010). Moreover, as marketing environment is rapidly changing, products and services can fast move from one coordinate to another in the brand image of consumers (Fill, 2009). The Role of Music in Advertising Music can be a very useful tool to reach efficacy in advertising, whether the aim is to arouse a cognitive, affective or conative response in the consumers (Sutherland, 2008). The analysis aims to show how the use of music can aid or hinder the effective factors identified in the general part. COGNITIVE PURPOSE Music can help to win consumers attention: reproducing a song well-known among the target audience or a catchy rhythm greatly helps to get its attentions (Sutherland, 2008). The use of creativity in music can be found in the production of jingles, where companies set their own words to Music. Jingles are among the best -and worst- ad messages produced. Done well, they can bring enormous success, well beyond the non-musical commercial. Done poorly, they can waste the advertising budget and annoy audiences beyond belief (Arens et Al, 2011). [see Appendix VII] Moreover, what Sutherland (2008) calls the three Rs rhyme, rhythm and repetition give words a mnemonic quality, making the message more catchy and enduring in memory. AFFECTIVE PURPOSE Research has shown that the positive mood created by music makes consumers more receptive to an ad message (Belch and Belch, 2009). When words are set to the music, a desire for repetition can be created: thats why jingles are able to involve consumers, at the point that they can become themselves part of the cultural background of people (Sutherland, 2008). A chart of the top 10 jingles of the century has been made, according to peoples preferences: a prove of the attachment consumers have towards them (Belch and Belch, 2009). Figure K. Source: Belch and Belch, 2009 The case of Oscar Mayers spots clearly shows the emotional power of jingles in advertising. [see Appendix VIII] Jingles are used less frequently today, replaced by an increasing use of current or classic pop songs: in the age of the technologic way to live music companies must be careful not to appear old-fashionable while using jingles (Belch and Belch, 2009). CONATIVE PURPOSE Music can also affect the way people behave, but since it better vehicles an emotional message, it seems to be effective especially -if not only- with the feel products (Sutherland, 2008). A great example of how music can be focused on action is the jingle created by the pizza chain Pizza, Pizza in Toronto: the company put its phone number in the lyrics, so that Toronto residents could memorize it easily. [see Appendix IX] On the other hand, music causes what Sutherland (2008) calls the wash-over effect: when we listen to lyrics, we process the message as an experience that we can enjoy or not rather than judging the reliability of its meaning. The entertaining mood set up by music is inappropriate when consumers want to focus on the rational information, as for think products (Arens et Al, 2011). As the analysis of consumers responses to music in advertising carried by Oakes (2007) shows, reaching a congruity between music and advertising in mood, genre, image and tempo contributes to the efficacy of an advertisement by enhancing recall, brand attitude, affective response and purchase intention. Since the negotiation of the license rights often needs large sums, marketers should carefully decide if and in which way music can be coherent with the marketing campaign, in order to avoid an expensive disorientation of consumers(Belch and Belch, 2009). RECOMMENDATIONS As shown through the report, advertisers should first ascertain to find the media mix that will maximize the reach of the audience (Ogilvy, 1985). Passing successfully through all the selective phases of consumers influence process is necessary to make them memorize a message (Karlz and Lazarsfeld, 1955). Concretely, this can be achieved by using appealing creativity (Dahlen et Al, 2010) and by increasing the frequency of the message (Pickton and Broderick, 2005). The use of Music can be very effective both for winning consumers attention and adding a mnemonic quality to the message (Sutherland, 2008). When aiming to build an emotional link with consumers, a successful choice is including associations recalling to common culture in the message sent to consumers (Gabrielsen, 2010). Jingles can be such able to involve consumers, that they can become themselves part of the cultural background of people (Sutherland, 2008). To effectively affect consumers behaviours, advertisers must understand how the purchasing decision for their products is taken by consumers; the FCB matrix by Vaughn (1986) suggest the quantity and quality of information to provide for each of the 4 types of purchasing process identified by crossing the level of involvement (high or low) and the kind of approach (emotional or rational). Music can be effective for feel products, but not for think products, since it sets up an entertaining mood inappropriate for rational decisions (Arens et Al, 2011). The overall recommendation for companies is to consider advertising as a process that involves the entire business as connected with it by a close cause-effect relationship: when an advert is not effective, it can be the symptom that theres something wrong in the marketing decision making process, or it can be the cause leading to future problems in the relationship with the market (Llambin, 2008). CONCLUSIONS It has been shown that a tripartite approach to the central question which factors can make advertising effective? is able to deeply analyse the issue and to define an accurate answer. Since all the factors except the maximisation of Reach refer to the ability of reading consumers minds, the report has confirmed how psychology can greatly support marketing functions and, specifically, making advertising effective (Foxall et Al, 1998). Thats why Market-driven companies, which have developed a deep knowledge of their consumers as a result of large investments in market research, have the concrete possibility to apply these factors in the most effective way possible (Llambin, 2008). APPENDICES As an example, the historical testimonial used by Danish Frisbee Sports Union for the 2012 campaign will be definitely able to catch consumers attention, but it can reasonably arouse perplexity and disgust in a high number of people. Source: http://www.chipshopawards.com/ Full text of the spot: Narrator :  I got a question for you. What does this city know about luxury, hm? What does a town thats been to hell and back know about the finer things in life? Well Ill tell you. More than most. You see,  its the hottest fires that make the hardest steel. Add hard work and conviction. And a know how that runs generations deep in every last one of us. Thats who we are. Thats our story. Now its probably not the one youve been reading in the papers. The one being written by folks who have never even been here. Dont know what were capable of. Because when it comes to luxury,  its as much about where its from as who its for. Now were from America but this isnt New York City, or the Windy City, or Sin City, and were certainly no ones Emerald City. Eminem: This is the motor city   and this is what we do. Written text: The new Chrysler 300 has arrived. Imported from Detroit Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embeddedv=V0HLIvtJRAI VIP testimonials can provide good advantages: a VIP well known among the target audience can better win consumers attention; it allows to make the advertising message more personal, exploiting the VIPs familiarity with the consumers ; people will associate the appreciated qualities of the VIP to the product (Arens et Al, 2011). Nestlà ¨ chose to set a totally VIP-focused campaign to promote Nespresso brand: George Clooney has being appeared in every adverts of the famous espresso machine, with the aim to take advantages from his style and world-wide popularity. Source of Image: http://www.generation-flux.com/images/Nespresso-site.jpg A great example of how an emotional link can be built by focusing advertising on current events widely enjoyed and cherished by people is represented by the marketing campaigns of PG, created to promote their laundry products Ariel in UK and Tide in USA during the Olympics of London 2012. The compelling references on the athletic competition were present in both the spots: Before the Gold, Silver, and Bronze, its the red, white and blue.At the Olympic Games, its not the color you go home with that matters, its the colors you came in. When colors mean this much, trust them to Ariel (UK)/ Tide (USA). The meaning of the final sentence Proud keeper of Our Countrys Colours was certainly influenced by the images of the athletes shown in the video: for Ariel, a high number of British participants ; for Tide, almost only American players. Sources: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DoF9DROHYnU Tide for USA; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jipn-MGg0DA Ariel for UK. A great example of the power of cultural associations can be found in politics. The ex-Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi, considered the biggest innovator in the Italian political marketing in a negative or positive way depending on the political conviction (Palmieri, 2012), named his first party Forza Italia (1994), that is the same slogan used by Italian people as an incitement for the national football team. The result was a widespread embarrassment (ibidem) when people not voting for Berlusconi wanted to support the football team, but they had to shout the name of his party: they could not manage not to think about this political association. Cirio is an Italian company founded in 1856 specialized in canned food, especially in tomato paste. (www.cirio.co.uk) Cirio managers werent happy to learn that their testimonial Gerard Depardieu was founded drunk and misbehaving on a plane just two weeks later the advertising campaign was launched. The spot is accessible here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ReGPNs-HfH0 The episode reported: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/celebritynews/8706992/Gerard-Depardieu-accused-of-urinating-on-floor-of-plane.html As an example, in the 1970s Coca-Cola was so successful with its jingle Id like to buy the world a Coke that it was then extended and released to become an international chart hit called Id like to Teach the World to Sing (Sutherland, 2008). Oscar Mayer is a brand owned by Kraft Foods. At the end of last century the company held local auditions in search of American children to continue the 30-year tradition of singing the catchy bologna and wiener jingles: they were such known that Oscar Mayer decided to be self-referential in order to best cultivate the relationship with the consumers. Thompson, S. 1997. Promotions: Nostalgia Bolognese, Brandweek, April 14, 1997 Original videos are available here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rmPRHJd3uHI (Bologna); http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNddW2xmZp8feature=related (Wieners) The example and the text of the jingle are reported in Sutherland (2008, p 122): nine-six-seven, eleven eleven / phone Pizza Pizza, hey hey hey!