Sunday, April 14, 2019
A Theory of Cross-Cultural Communication Essay Example for Free
A Theory of Cross-Cultural Communication EssayCultures here are minimally seen as large-scale systems of pretended dual-lane references, linguistic or otherwise1, used for the purposes of reducing complexity. 2 Cultures themselves may idealize one or several centers, where the shared references are felt to be so dense that communication would be without all need for drop-offs of complexities. Away from such ideals, cultures have peripheries, where references are sparse, or sparsely shared, or mixed with references shared by other cultures. The terms center and periphery are not to be understood geopolitically. (cf.Even-Zohar 1990, Toury 1995) The differences amid centers and peripheries are operative fictions rather than primary empirical facts. The very belief that one is in a central cast may be enough to curtail complexity, just as the false legal opinion that one is lacking in context may increase complexity. (Pym 1998) The difference between center and periphery ma y excessively be characterized in terms of effort. When shared references are believed to be dense (all else world equal), the reduction of complexity requires less effort than when the references are believed to be sparse.Effort here is understood as being on both the sending and receiving sides of messages, as well as in every mediating position or investment in the channel. A text move and received near a perceive center will therefore require less investment of effort than the same text sent from a center to a periphery (assuming that the reduction of complexity is 1. 3. 1. 4. 1. 5. to be to a similar period in both cases). And further appurtenant effort will be needed if the text is to be received in another culture. (Pym 1995) 1. 6.The lines between cultures are marked as cross-over points where the communication act receives supplementary effort of a mediating and discontinuous nature. Such points are usually where translations are carried out. (Pym 2001a) Cross-cultur al communication thus marks the points of contact between cultures, although it alone will not join up the points to form any kind of line. (Pym 1998, 2001a, cf. Chatwin 1987) On complexity and its reduction Texts are inscribed objects that can be see in different ways and for different functions, quite independently of any original intentions. The plurality of executable interpretations is what we are calling complexity. The reduction of complexity does not imply any discerning of a received or primal meaning. For example, a reader at this point might interpret the term reduction of complexity as understanding, but such a reading will hopefully be deviated by the following paragraphs. In this sense, the reduction of complexity does not entail an act of understanding in any idealist sense. Nor must effort be expended only to reduce complexity. Effort can also be used to make texts more complex, preparing them for a greater plurality of interpretations.Such might be a certain conc eption of aesthetic pleasure, diplomatic ambiguity, or communicative mechancete. The degree of appropriate complexity is in each case dependent on the mastery conditions of the communicative act concerned. On success conditions Success conditions are criteria that make the communicative act beneficial for all or some of the participants concerned. 4 Such criteria may be simple, as in the case of a business negotiation to move on mutual agreement on a sales price the success condition might be that a price is agreed to by all participants.